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June 3rd, 2019
Training and Coaching are an essential part of Lean Six Sigma deployment.
Experts from outside your organisation can come in and run individual projects, but ultimately if you want to sustain and build on their success you need your own people to have a good understanding of how, when and why to apply these techniques.
Over the years we have developed a successful and proven format for how Lean Six Sigma (LSS) training and coaching is delivered. Classroom training usually involves some sort of practical simulation to which participants can apply the techniques they’re being taught, so the course is a balance between PowerPoint slides, making things using paper, Lego®, circuit boards and sticking post-it notes on the wall. It’s a tried and tested method. The technical information about the improvement techniques is put across; practical application helps embed the learning in participants minds, and there’s lots of opportunity for practicing facilitating in front of a group.
How does 5S Coaching and Training differ?
5S is the one tool where this method doesn’t quite work though, and this presents a problem because it is truly a foundational technique without which most of the other tools will either be less effective or not work at all.
The reason 5S is different is that, unlike just about every other Lean technique, it is not based on processes, but instead on the work environment. If you’re not careful when training, this can also make it seem overly simplistic and have the participants keen to move on to whatever’s next, when in reality a detailed appreciation of each of the 5 S’s is essential if they’re going to be effective at applying LSS techniques when they get back to their normal workplace.
So how do you train 5S?
The answer is that the best way to train 5S is to actually do it!
When I learnt 5S it was a 4-day course in a lab on a chemicals plant in Manchester. That may seem excessive for a technique which has a reputation for being about telling people to keep their cupboards tidy, but being part of a genuine, text book application of the tool left me a convert for life, and with the enthusiasm and willingness to train other people in the same way. The company I was working for received two benefits, not only did they gain 10 people who could properly spread the 5S word, they also gained the transformation of a lab that was badly in need of improvement.
The first point to get across when training 5S is that this is far more than just tidying up. I know of projects where LSS Belts, keen to apply the clever new techniques they have learnt in training, spent a lot of time analysing data about process performance and developing complex improvement ideas based on the analysis and then, when they actually went out to the place where the work was being done, found that no one knew where anything was kept and the biggest use of time was searching for things.
That is how you learn the value of 5S the hard way, the easy way is simply to practice.
Easy might not necessarily be the right word though – while 5S can be less technical than many tools, it can be extremely demanding on a facilitator’s influencing skills and might also involve some old-fashioned hard graft. This is where the reality of the organisation spanning nature of an LSS Belt role kicks in – you may well be reporting back the results of the overall improvement program to the executive board, but to coach 5S properly you also must be prepared to roll up your sleeves and muck in. Once you’ve given everyone involved a quick introduction to the concept and the 7 Wastes, the physical stuff starts with the first ‘S’.
Sort is not just physical though, it’s important to remember that for the participants it can be quite emotional too. On the face of it you’re repeatedly asking the same simple questions about every item in the work area you’ve defined – do we need this to do the work, and if not, do we need it somewhere else or should we get rid of it? Faced with the stark logic of what you’re doing people who have been hoarding items for years just in case they come in useful can sometimes become quite unsettled by the situation. If they’re completely honest with themselves they know they don’t need this stuff, and they know there’s no point disagreeing with the notion that unnecessary items get in the way and can cause the confusion that leads to defects, but for reasons they are unable to justify they simply like having it there. Clutter occurs because people allow it to, when you start to address it you realise that they do this not just because they are untidy people, but because it makes them feel comfortable.
When training people to lead their own 5S activity it is hard to get this across and to explain how to deal with it in a classroom, but in the work environment it becomes clear.
There are, of course, techniques to deal with this dilemma, such as red tagging, where any item the usefulness of which cannot be ascertained in the short time available is tagged with the date and reviewed at an agreed date in the future. If it’s still not been used then it must go, if it has then we need to find a proper place for it.
Straighten, Sweep and Standardise
Finding a proper place for the items that remain after Sort is the second S, Straighten. You then move through Sweep, the part which needs the least explanation of all and usually involves brooms, mops and paint brushes; Standardise, where you use signs, alarms, visual signals and anything else which seems appropriate to gain control over how the employees interact with the workplace; and finally Sustain, the part which, if not done properly, risks degradation of the improvements over time to the point where the whole thing might need doing again.
Sustain is really just the 5S version of Control, the final stage in DMAIC project management. I’ve always found it an interesting moment in 5S training when we reach the end of Standardise and I ask the group what they think would happen next if we just finished now and left the people working in the area to carry on. Often the group will have been so involved in creating the improvements they won’t have considered this, but when they do they unanimously agree that over time it will just go back to exactly how it was before. This is their challenge for Sustain – what are we going to put in place to ensure that does not happen? If we don’t do anything we’ll all have wasted our time.
The answer is not the same for every workplace, but it usually involves audits (you can use standard 5S audits or customise them to make them more relevant to your organisation), audit schedules, and visual displays of the current performance. That last one can be particularly effective – no Supervisor wants to prominently display a graph in the area they’re responsible for showing that organisation in the workplace is gradually getting worse.
It’s only by going through all 5 S’s in this level of detail that Lean Six Sigma belts gain a full understanding of the challenges of implementing the tool, and why it is so essential. People attending LSS courses are often keen to learn new techniques that will not just benefit the organisation but also their careers, they want to be the person who makes a name for themselves by using these techniques to dramatically reduce the company’s costs. That’s great, but everyone knows you’re not going to get there through application of 5S alone. What good quality training helps them see is that in many work environments you’re also not going to get there without it.
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Mike joined Bourton Group following on from a successful career in performance improvement. He is a certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt with nine years’ experience of leading hard benefit generating projects, across multiple functions of a large organisation. He has delivered numerous Continuous Improvement training courses, and coached colleagues at all stages of the Lean Six Sigma training process.
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